Indirect object pronouns are:
mi to me ci to us
ti to you (familiar) vi to you (familiar)
gli to him, to it loro to them
le to her, to it Loro to you (polite, m. and f.)
Le to you (polite, m. and f.)
Compare the foregoing with the direct-object pronouns below.
mi me ci us
ti you vi you (familiar)
lo him, it (m.) li them (m.)
la her, it (f.) le them (f.)
La you (polite, m. and f.) Li you (polite, m.)
Le you (polite, f.)
After you have compared these pronouns, the following facts should stand out:
mi = me; to me ci = us; to us
ti = to; to you vi = you; to you
In the third person, the pronoun objects are as follows.
lo = him; it (m.) gli = to him, to it
la = her; it (f.) le = to her, to it
La = you (polite) Le = to you (polite)
li = them (m.) loro = to them
le = them (f.) Loro = to you (polite)
Li = you (polite, m.)
Le = you (polite, f.)
Observe that with only one exception (le) all these forms differ from each other in spelling. They may appear somewhat confusing when listed all at once, but the context is generally of great help in determining the meaning of a pronoun.
NOTE: The position of the indirect-object pronouns is the same as that of the direct-object pronouns.
- They usually precede the verbs (except for loro and Loro, which always follows it).
Gli do del pane. –“I give him some bread.”
- With the exception of loro and Loro, the indirect-object pronouns follow and are attached to the infinitive, the present participle, and the affirmative forms of the true imperatives.
Desidero parlargli. –“I wish to speak to him.”
Raccontandogli le mie miserie gli davo noia. –“By telling him my troubles I annoyed him.”
Mostrami i tuoi disegni. –“Show your drawings to me.” (“Show me your drawings.”)
- With modal auxiliaries (helping verbs), the indirect-object pronouns may precede the auxiliary or follow the infinitive.
Gli posso parlare? (Posso parlargli?) –“May I speak to him?”
Ti voglio dire qualcosa. (Voglio dirti qualcosa.) –“I want to tell you something.”
has (3d. sing. pres. subj., avere)
to employ, to use
|a piene mani
it will suffice (3d. sing. fut., bastare)
this, that (dem.pron.)
gave (3d. pl. past abs., dare)
said (3d. sing. past abs., dire)
to disdain, to scorn
|*nulla (also niente
|*persino (also perfino)
replied, answered (3d. sing. past abs., *rispondere)
to sow, to scatter
to treat, to discuss