I. Irregular verbs

The past absolute of vincere, “to win,” and giungere, “to arrive” (in-transitive), “to join” (transitive), are similar. The past participles of both verbs are irregular.

 

vincere giungere
Past absolute vinsi

vincesti

vinse

vincemmo

vinceste

vinsero

giunsi

giungesti

giunse

giungemmo

giungeste

giunsero

Past participle vinto giunto

When giungere is used intransitively, it is conjugated with essere in compound tenses: sono giunto, –a, etc.; when it is used transitively, the auxiliary is avere: ho giunto, etc. Another use of giungere is with a, before an infinitive, to mean “to succeed” (in doing).

Conjugated like vincere: convincere (to convince).

Conjugated like giungere: aggiungere (to add), congiungere (to join), disgiungere (to disjoin), raggiungere (to overtake), soggiungere (to add).


VOCABULARY A

andare innanzi
to progress
*arrivare a (+ inf.)    to manage (to do), to succeed (in doing) *destra
right (direction)
formica
ant
infaticato  indefatigable, tireless miniera
mine
molteplice        many-sided netto
clean, clear, clear-cut, sharp
pece (f.)
tar, pitch
portentoso  prodigious, miraculous, wonderful *proprietà  precision, correctness; property *pur (= pure)
even
*qualunque  whatever, any whatever radice
root
taglio
cut
usanza
custom

VOCABULARY B

barbaria (also barbarie)   barbarousness, barbarity *cena
supper, dinner
*comodo     comfortable, convenient distruggitore (f., distruggitrice)
destructive
indebolire  to weaken, to enfeeble, to debilitate insito
innate, inherent
posto placed (past part.,porre); postasi = “having placed itself” rammollire
to soften
salute (f.)
health; safety; salvation
*stagione (f.)    season vezzoso
charming, graceful

 

Last revised on January 30, 2017.

II. Idiomatic present, imperfect

The present tense is idiomatically used with da in Italian to express the idea that an act or state that started in the past is still going on.

-“I have been studying for an hour.”

Studio da un’ora.

or

È da un’ora che studio.

Similarly, an action or state that started at some point in the past and was still going on at some later point in the past is expressed by the imperfect with da.

-“I had been studying for an hour.”

Studiavo da un’ora.

or

Era da un’ora che studiavo.

VOCABULARY

china
slope, declivity
*dichiarare
to declare
*lungo (prep.)    along; during *pezzo
piece; (here) some time, quite a while
rovesciare
to overthrow, to overturn
scivolare
to slide, to slop
smembrare
to dismember, to split up
*sorgente (f.)    source, origin

 

Last revised on January 30, 2017.

III. Meanings of da

In addition to the meanings noted in the preceding section (for, since), da may have any of the following meanings.

(from) Viene da Roma. –“He comes from Rome.”

(by) È ammirato da tutti. –“He is admired by all.”

(as, like) Combattè da eroe. –“He fought like a hero.”

(with) il medico dalla barba lunga –“the doctor with the long beard”

(at or to the home [office, shop, etc.] of, at or to the place associated with, etc.) È andata dal medico. –“She went to the doctor’s (office).”

(on) da un lato (da una parte) –“on the one hand” (“on one side”)

dall’altro lato (dall’altra parte) –“on the other hand” (“on the other side”)

Furthermore, before an infinitive, da may mean “to” or “something to,” or may express duty or necessity.

Che c’è da mangiare? –“What is there to eat?”

Dategli da bere. –“Give him something to drink.”

Ho molto da fare. –“I have a lot to do.”

Ho da scrivere a casa. –“I have to write home.”


VOCABULARY A

*addirittura
positively, actually
*azzurro
blue
cardine (m.)foundation, base; hinge, pivot dispinto
depicted, portrayed (past part., dipingere)
*indizio
indication; sign; symptom
ingiuriai
nsult
*migliorare
to better, to improve,
to ameliorate
offeso
offended, injured (past
part., offendere)
ossequio
respect; obedience
*pace (f.)
peace
*parecchiseveral
(f. pl., parecchie)
raccoglimento
meditation
richiedere
to demand, to require

VOCABULARY B

abbozzato
sketchy
affetto
affection
aperto
open (past part., aprire)
*debole
weak
 dignitoso
dignified, noble
 ferace
fertile, rich
manchevolezza       imperfection, defect, fault *occorrere
to be necessary
prepotenza        arrogance prevalga
prevail (3d sing. pres. subj., prevalere)
rispettoso
respectful
sfrenato    unrestrained
superbo
arrogant, proud, haughty
*virtù
virtue; property
*volerci = essere necessario

 

Last revised on January 30, 2017.