Study the formation of the past absolute (also called past definite) of the regular verbs.
vend ei (-etti)1
vend è (-ette)1
vend erono (-ettero)1
The past absolute may be translated in two ways: parlai can be translated “I spoke” or “I did speak.” It is used to refer to single actions in the relatively distant past (cf. the Italian name for it: passatoremoto).
NOTE: Except for the fact that each conjugation retains its characteristic vowel, the endings of the past absolute are the same for the three regular conjugations. The third person singular of verbs in the first conjugation (parlò) is the only exception.
1 Second-conjugation verbs in the past absolute are sometimes used with an old set of endings which occur only in the first and third persons singular and the third person plural.
are met, may be met (3d pl. pres. subj.,incontrare)
to lift, to raise
III. Direct-object personal pronouns
mi me ci us
ti you (familiar) vi you (familiar)
lo him, it (m.) li them (m.)
la her, it (f.) le them (f.)
La you (polite, m. and f.) Li you (polite, m.)
Le you (polite, f.)
IV. Position of personal pronouns
Except in a few cases, the pronoun objects given above precede the verb.
Lo conosco. –“I know him.”
Ci chiamano. –“They are calling us.”
La conoscete? –“Do you know her?”
NOTE: When the verb begins with a vowel, the pronouns mi, ti, lo, and la (others less commonly) often drop their final vowel and take an apostrophe.
Egli t’ammira. –“He admires you.”
Essa m’ascolta. –“She listens to me.”
One of the exceptions to the rule stated under number 1 is that of the object of an infinitive. In that case the pronoun object follows the infinitive and is written as one word with it, after the final e of the infinitive is dropped. (This is identical to what happens with reflexive pronouns-cf. section XVI, page 31.)
Desidero (di) conoscerli. –“I wish to know (meet) them.”
Egli promette di farlo. –“He promises to do it.”
Vado al cinema per divertirmi. –“I go to the movies to have a good time.”
Review the items you know, and learn the rest.
to listen (to)
to be called
to look (at)
*a seconda di
aptitude (cf. atteggiamento, attitude)
compiere (also compire)
must (3d. sing. pres., dovere)
must (3d. pl. pres., dovere)
*mille (pl., mila)
no more, no longer
aim to complete
to establish (cf. stabilizzare, tostabilize)