4. Particles

You will have seen and will continue to see in German-language texts the adverbs that are listed below. They are used often in German to add shades of meaning and emphasis to German sentences, and are not usually translateable with one-word equivalents. In fact, it is sometimes better to avoid trying to add a corresponding word to your translation. Instead, simply take the effect of these particles into consideration as you select the most appropriate translations of other words and phrases in the sentence.

auch also, even
doch really, nevertheless, but certainly, after all
ja certainly, to be sure
schon already, even
Last revised on October 6, 2014.