11. Common Abbreviations

For reading German, it is useful to remember the following common abbreviations: z.B. = zum Beispiel (for example); usw. or usf. = und so weiter and und so fort (et cetera); d.h. = das heißt (in other words / that means); bzw. = beziehungsweise (respectively / that is to say).

Now that you have studied two of the noun cases (nominative and accusative), noun plurals, the present and past tenses of sein and haben, and German word order, you are ready to apply these skills by translating simple sentences.

A good practice opportunity is to play the Unit 1 Syntax Untangler activity at this point. (Link opens in new window.)
Last revised on October 7, 2014.